ghe-, gho-

ghe-, gho-
    ghe-, gho-
    English meaning: an enclitic particle
    Deutsche Übersetzung: and ähnliche enklitische Partikeln zur Verstärkung of vorhergehenden Wortes
    Note: It seems two groups have to be separated, single-linguistic but to have partly begun at another place: 1. ghe, gho, 2. with palatalem Gutt., the in europ. languages as ĝ, in Ar. as ĝh appears (as in the cases like Gk. γένυς: O.Ind. hánuḥ), thus showed one of the normal so-called voiced-aspirated various articulation kind, and the vowel i or e.
    Material: 1. -ghe, -gho: O.Ind. gha (*gho), ha (*ghe) behind negation (ná gha ), personal pronoun (e.g. vayáṁ gha), dem so/to-Pron. (sá gha, sá ha), to the question pronoun (e.g. káṁ ha), to the relative pronoun (yṓ gha, yṓ ha), also behind other parts of speech; O.Ind. hánta “ well, on take, there take, see there “; Umbr. -hont (e.g. era-hunt “by the same way, by the same piece of work; at the same time, likewise”), compare also Lat. hic “ this, this one; this present “ from *gho or *ghe + *ke; Welsh a(g) “with” from *ad-ghe; see above S. 3; O.C.S. -go, -že behind negation (ni-že “ not; and not, nor; rarely not even “, ne jedinъ že “not only one, not one, i.e. no one, none; not at all, naught “; compare also O.C.S. neže, Serb. nègo “as” in comparative and Serb. nȅgo “however, but”, Cz. než(e) “yet”, where nerather the negation has arisen as indicating the positive meaning of Pron.-stem ne-), behind the relative pronoun (iže), lengthened grade (*ghō) O.Sor. kdy-ha “ when, then “ (under likewise; Berneker 316); Lith. -gu (*ghō), -gi (these with dem vowel i the 2. group) in negì, neigì, negù “not”, behind Pers.-Pron. (e.g. tu-gu, tu-gi “ thou at least, for thy part “ : Boeot. touga : Gk. σύγε), O.Lith. also -ga, -ge, dem so/to-Pron. (e.g.tie-gi), to the question pron. (kaip-gi “as”), -gu also interrogative particle (compare also O.Lith. an-gu “if”, O.Pruss. an-ga “if”), O.Pruss. beggi “for”, küigi “as”, neggi “also not, still”, niqueigi “ never more “; Gk. οὐχί see under. 2. -ĝ(h)ī̆: in O.Ind. hí, Av. zī emphasizing particle (ná hí, nahí, Av. nōit zī; O.Ind. kár-hi “when?”, tár-hi “damals” under likewise), behind the first word of the sentence “ then yes “; Gk. οὐ-χί, μή-χι “not”, ἧ-χι “where”, ναί-χι “ certainly, indeed” (-χ- instead of -γ-, compare under γε, presumably through hybridization with a particle the 1. group); Lat. *nē-gi (after Holthausen KZ. 47, 309 = O.S. nec “and not”), assumed through negōtium, originally sentence compound neg”ōtium est (compare haud-ōtium est by Terenz) and negüre (compare Ger. verneinen, bejahen); Clr. Bulg. Serb. -zi behind personal pronoun 3. -ĝ(h)e: in Gk. ἐμε-γέ = Goth. mi-k, O.H.G. mi-h = Arm. is “me” (at first from *in-c), ἐγώ γε, ἔγω-γε, σύ γe, Goth. Þu-k, si-k, O.H.G. di-h, si-h; after so/to-Pron. ὅ γε, after the relative pronoun ὅσσα γε, ὅντινα γε, further γε, Dor. böot. el. γὰ also behind other parts of speech. In Balt as well as also (besides in the with ī vocalized form) in Slav. the guttural of the 1. group has become dominant, as well as in Gk. -χι; Ven. me-χo “me” has related о from eχo “I”; Toch. strengthening particle A - k, В - k(e) from *-ghe or -ĝhe (compare Pedersen Toch. 136); Hitt. am-mu-uk (ammuk) “me”, tu-uk (tuk) “you”: Goth. Þuk (*tu-ge), etc., s. Pedersen Hitt. 73 f., 166 f. Maybe Alb. (*mu-uka) mua “me” : Rom. mie “me”, (*tu-uk) ty “you”, nasalized (*mu-uka) Alb. Arbëresh uth, Alb. unë “I” common Alb. -k > -th phonetic mutatIon.
    References: WP. I 541 f., WH. I 644, Schwyzer Gk. I 606, 624.

Proto-Indo-European etymological dictionary. 2015.

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